Julius Caesar was the dictator for life. 2 years later members of the senate assassinated him. A young boy named Octavian was 18 years old. Octavian was Caesar’s grandnephew but Octavian had always hoped Caesar would take him as a son. Octavian knew of everything that Caesar had done. From conquering Gaul to when he crossed the Publicans with his army, and also when he defeated his enemies and became the most powerful man in Rome. At the age of 14 Octavian had finally met his great-uncle and hero when he came back from Asia Minor and said the 3 famous words that summed up his victory, “Veni, Vidi, Vici.” Latin for “I came, I saw, I conquered” In Caesar’s will, Octavian’s dream had finally come true. Caesar had adopted him as his son. In Caesar’s will he left his money to a man named Marc Anthony. He was a powerful general at the time. He was a consul of Rome and successor to Caesar. Octavian knew he couldn’t just get the money from Anthony. Octavian had no military experience or political experience. But he was now Julius Caesar’s son.
As Rome once again fell into devastation, they needed someone who could pull Rome back together and take control. This led to the second triumvirate. The three men who were running in this were Lepidus, Octavian, and Marc Anthony. After Lepidus retired from running for dictator, it left only Octavian and Marc Anthony. As Marc Anthony and Cleopatra set out to take the throne in Rome, they went to western Rome in Asia Minor to win battles. Anthony won the battle of Armenia but soon after returned to Alexandria instead of Rome. When People had wondered why he had done this Octavian said to the senate “Anthony intends to make Alexandria, instead of Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire. Cleopatra bewitches Anthony. Has he not bestowed upon her provinces, which belong to you, as Romans? Has he not deserted Octavian, his faithful wife, for that accursed female (Foster 114)?” Anthony started moving his Egyptian fleet and 200 ships toward a city called Actium. Octavian had a fleet off 400 ships waiting for him, and Octavian soon won the battle. Anthony had heard that Cleopatra had killed herself, and without thought he killed himself so he could be with her. Cleopatra though, wasn’t dead. She came back home to visit Anthony’s tomb. She then went to her own tomb and poisoned herself. Octavian now stood alone, one ruler who now controlled all of Rome and now a new Roman province, Egypt.
Octavian now was ruler of Rome. Since he was Julius Caesar’s adopted son, in January 27 BC the senate changed his name from Octavian to Augustus Caesar. From this point on, Pax Romana had begun. Pax Romana is Latin for Rome in peace. Peace was finally restored in Rome, and Augustus was the imperator. Imperator later became know as emperor. Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. The first thing Augustus did to restore peace was present to Rome a new constitution. This constitution “transferred the State to the free disposal of the Senate and people (“Augustus” 370).” There were still several civil wars but definitely not as many as before. He had many military operations continuing in many frontier areas. By the year 25 BC rebellious Alpine tribes were defeated and destroyed. In central Asia Minor an area named Galatia was annexed. But a place called Mauritania was changed from Roman provincial status to a client-kingdom, which had a dependent monarchy. Around the year 23 BC reports of conspiracies made him feel that new constitutional stops were necessary. He continued to End all his series of consulships in favor of a power in which disconnected altogether from office and it’s businesslike inconveniences. This gained power had raised Augustus to a new level. Augustus had listen to the poor people and had supported them. He also tended to back the established classes as the basis of his system. Augustus, around 19 BC, started to witness some social occasions. He encouraged marriage, regulated penalties for adultery, and reduces extravagance. In 17 BC there were glorious celebrations of ancient ritual. This was known